Название: Экономика Крыма № 3 (40)`2012 - Научно‐практический журнал

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WIND ENERGY: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS IN THE CRIMEA

Relevance of the chosen topic is that alternative energy sources are required to use in large volumes. And soon they can eventually completely replace the traditional sources. Because using fossil fuels creates pollution, such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which contribute to acid rain, and carbon dioxide which contributes to global climate change. Wind turbines produce electricity by using the natural power of the wind to drive a generator. The wind is a clean and sustainable fuel source, it does not create pollution and it will never run out. Improvements in this technology continue to make turbines cheaper and more efficient.

Theoretical, methodological and practical issues of energy security and sustainable development are considered in modern works of Russian and foreign scientists Borodyuk VM, VM Geets, Davydenko IV,

 

Demina A. Zablodsky IV, Kuzmenko LT , Kulik MN Malitskaya BA, Rudnev, S., Tomanevicha LM Hudaeva DV

Crimea is energy region, importing more than 90% of electricity consumed from the mainland of Ukraine [1]. For the Crimean region economic dimension of sustainable ecological and socio-economic development is connected, first of all, the need to find new alternative energy sources and implementation of projects for renewable energy.

Experts consider the most promising development of wind power in the Crimea [2]. The use of wind power in the Crimea is possible on two main fronts. First, it is the construction of wind power more than 100

kW, which will run in parallel with the overall power system. Secondly, the construction of a small wind power to provide energy for individual objects (residential and others).

Objective – to explore degree of using alternative energy based on the wind in the Ukraine and in the Crimea, in particular. to investigate the possibility of providing electric energy for the trolley park from

renewable energy resource.

This objective has led to the following tasks:

Investigate the state of wind power in Ukraine and the Crimea, and compare with international experience in this area

Research of the conditions for obtaining wind energy in the Crimea

Research the necessity of preservation and development green modes of transport, features of their energy supply.

Show the possibility of a «green calculator» to create the most suitable conditions for the installation of wind turbines

World reserves of wind power is more than 100 times bigger then all reserves of energy from the rivers all over the planet. And wind energy has proven its worth in many countries.

Based on the table 1, the annual growth and development of all energy sources in Ukraine is higher

than that of EU countries, according to forecast data, this trend will continue. This may be due to the fact that Ukraine is still developing its capacity and sources of minerals.

 

 

Primary Energy Supply in the EU25 and Ukraine in 2004 in Mtoe

Table 1

 

From this data, you can see that the EU uses the renewable energy potential is 10 times better than Ukraine, according to the 2004 (table 2, picture 1) 3, p. 5].

 

Primary energy demand until 2030 in Mtoe

Table 2

Pic. 1. Structure of primary energy demand EU and Ukraine

Here we see that the trend of reducing the use of oil and gas, still hold increasing demand for green energy and solid fuels.

So, we can see, that energy demand Ukraine is bigger than in EU now, and mostly will grow up in the future (table 3) [3, p.28].

 

 

Demand of Renewable Energy Sources in Ukraine, 2004-2030 in Mtoe

Table 3

 

From this table, we see that the forecast for 2030 demand for energy, which is produced from alternative energy sources will increase ten-fold compared to the present day. In particular, the demand for wind energy will increase in 5 times.

A world leader – Germany, where the power of wind power stations exceeded 20,000 MW. Electricity generated by them covers about 30% of the country. On the German background of Ukraine is very modest. Capacity of all wind farm – 85 MW (at the end of 2009), in the Crimea – 45.8 MW. But Ukraine has got a huge wind potential. In our country it can be built a wind farm with a total capacity more than 24 thousand MW, including the Autonomous Republic of Crimea – 10,000 MW. It is possible to build a powerful stations as well as small to provide energy for villages or individual facilities (hotels, houses, etc.).

Meanwhile, the Crimean peninsula about 90% of the energy received from the continental Ukraine. The contribution of local thermal power plants is quite small industry, agriculture, resort and recreation complex have a shortage of energy

Among the promising projects – construction Kazantipskaya wind farm with 300 MW capacity, which will be very useful it Kerch region. Fortunately, we have got the constant wind activity in this region. This

natural factor used right along for the Crimeans benefit. Megawatt installation will start working at a wind

speed of 3m/sec.

The environmental factor is very important to the resort region. Efficient wind turbines do not pollute the environment, do not require burning fossil fuels. When operating wind farms greenhouse gases that cause global climate change are not allocated (picture 2-4). There are no toxic and radioactive waste. Therefore, the Crimean «green» actively support the construction of such kind of power plants.

 

 

 

Source: [4]

Pic. 2. Breakdown of GHG emissions within the energy sector

 

 

 

Source: [5]

 

Pic. 3. Breakdown of GHG emissions within the industrial processes sector

 

Pic. 4. Breakdown of GHG emission changed only within the agriculture sector

Source: [5]

When using the 600 kW wind turbines and more energy production from wind plants will be up to 30% of annual consumption in the region. Today, seven investment projects in wind power is realized on the peninsula. This is not enough. Because the peninsula has a unique opportunity for the development of renewable energy sources. Scientists and experts in the field of energy called it bioenergy, heat pump installations, solar plants. It is really to increase the use of renewable energy sources significantly on the area

 

of the peninsula. This is a positive impact on creation new work places job, innovation implementation. Ukraine has a program of state support for the development of nontraditional and renewable energy sources and small hydro power plants. The target set for renewables is 10 percent of generation by 2010.

Wind energy is currently only being generated by a few small state wind farms; while the lack of any private wind farm projects is due to a shortage of local know-how and government incentives.

It is estimated that the Ukraine has 5,000 MW of mid term potential for wind generation in over 40 percent of its territory. Wind energy potential in the country is big enough to generate about 70 million MWh per year.

In our work, we also examined in detail the form of alternative energy as wind power. this is due to the fact that in the Crimea and Ukraine have all geographic prerequisites for the development of projects in this area. Windustry has developed a WindProject Calculator to provide cash flow modeling for your wind project.

When we use the computer program a "green calculator" we are able to predict the profit from the installation of wind turbines. This program takes into account everything investments of investors, Amortization, type and capacity of turbines, the cost of electricity, maintenance of turbines, etc. At the moment all the Simferopol trolleybus fleet consumes in a month between 4 and 5 GW elekroenergy by modern state prices for enterprises – it is 660 thousand dollars a month. In the transition to wind turbines, the

project will pay for itself in approximately 4-5 years.

We conducted a study which shows areas of the Crimea where there are environmental and resource conditions for cost-effective installation of wind turbines. Wind turbines can be placed in several of the following: consider, that we see on the map of the Crimea, they are marked with symbols. Specifics on each corner of the Crimea, taking into account the useful power of the wind for the wind turbine.

East: District of Kerch, Musovoe, Vladislavovka, Feodosiya. Better performance at the Musovoe on the coast of the Azov Sea.

South: District of  Ai-Petri-Karabi Yayla,  Hersonissos, Sevastopol, Kamyshevaya bay. The  best indicator of a Karabi-Yayla, but in this area may have difficulty with the placement of wind turbines due to the terrain. We are more suitable variants near Sevastopol, the three points in an area suitable for the location of wind turbines. North-West District of Chernomorskoe, Razdolnoye,, Strelkovoe, Stregushee. The best

figure in the Chernomorskoe, but this high percentage of protected areas, therefore, preferred areas and

guarding Rozdolnogo.

The bulk of renewable energy resources such as wind, wave, solar, and waterpower, burning biomass, etc., generate electricity. Therefore, electricity just has to be the green flexible environmentally friendly sustainable 'fuel' of choice for urban transport systems for the future. Trolleybuses could have a major role in a greener and sustainable future.

References

Электроэнергетическая        система           АРК    [Electronic       resource]          //          http://www.invest- crimea.gov.ua/show_content.php?alias=energy&mid=1&m2=273

Сарматов И.  Крымский  «генератор» энергонезависимости [Electronic resource] /И.  Сарматов. – http://ecrimea.info/2009/06/29/24082/Kryimskiy

Comparative analysis EU and Ukraine Security of energy supply. – UNDP Blue Ribbon Analytical and Advisory Centre. Energy Policy Team, September 2007. – 33 p.

Breakdown of GHG emissions within the energy sector [Electronic resource] // http://www.tsp-data- portal.org/Breakdown-of-GHG-Emissions-by-Sector.aspx

United nations.            Climate            Change            Secretariat       [Electronic       resource]          //

https://plus.google.com/112550270511260808486#112550270511260808486/posts

Рецензент докт. экон. наук, профессор С.Ю. Цехла

 

005.346:339.138                     Балабаниць А.В., д.е.н., доцент, ДонНУЕТ імені Михайла Туган-Барановського



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